Association Between Multivitamin Supplementation and Mortality Among Patients with Ebola Virus Disease: An International Multisite Cohort Study

Micronutrient supplementation is recommended in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) care; however, there is limited data on its therapeutic effects. This retrospective cohort study included patients with EVD admitted to five Ebola Treatment Units (ETU) in Sierra Leone and Liberia during September 2014 to December 2015. A uniform protocol was used to guide ETU care, however, due to supply limitations, only a subset of patients received multivitamins. Data on demographics, clinical characteristics, and laboratory testing was collected. The outcome of interest was facility-based mortality and the primary predictor was multivitamin supplementation initiated within 48 h of admission. The multivitamin formulations included: thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and vitamins A, C, and D3. Propensity score models (PSM) were used to match patients based on covariates associated with multivitamin administration and mortality. Mortality between cases treated and untreated within 48 h of admission were compared using generalized estimating equations to calculate relative risk with bootstrap methods employed to assess statistical significance. There were 424 patients with EVD who had sufficient treatment data for analysis, of which 261 (61.6%) had daily multivitamins initiated within 48 h of admission. The mean age of the cohort was 30.5 years and 59.4% were female. In the propensity score matched analysis, mortality was 53.5% among patients receiving multivitamins and 66.2% among patients not receiving multivitamins, resulting in a relative risk for mortality of 0.81 (p = 0.03) for patients receiving multivitamins. Early multivitamin supplementation was associated with lower overall mortality. Further research on the impact of micronutrient supplementation in EVD is warranted.

Start Date:2017

End Date:2020

Partners: Brown University

Donors: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH)

Publications: African Journal of Emergency Medicine